kwargs - similar to ...args in javascript


  • a reference to the current instance of the class
  • self is always the first argument of a class method (including the init method)
    • In the init method, self refers to the newly created object
    • In other class methods, it refers to the instance whose method was called.


  • it is a constructor
  • Called when an object is instantiated.
  • It will initialize the attributes of the class


  • give the current object access to the methods from its superclass
  • super returns a temporary object of the superclass, which allows us to call that superclass's methods
  • Common use case
    • building classes that extend functionality of previously built classes


  • Async task queueing system that can allow you to queue up jobs at schedules, or have them queue up on a trigger (ex. on some get request).


Why you need pyenv to manage Python versions

  1. Anaconda
  2. Env
  3. JS Equivalent